2πr&3p is a book exploring the hand drawn circle and the graphology associated with it. It also provides a small window into the designer's pursuit of perfection.

In October 2014, all 36 students from the MFA Products of Design program at the School of Visual Arts were asked to draw a circle on a piece of 98-brightness copy paper, in landscape orientation. The students each sketched their version of a perfect circle on standard letter-sized paper, using the exact same black pen. Almost all the participants immediately judged their circle as far from perfect - many attempt, exemplifying how unattainable perfection really is.

The circumference (from Latin circumferentia, meaning "carrying around") is the linear enclosing boundary or path of a curved geometric figure, usually a circle. The mathematical formula for finding the circumference of a circle is C = 2πr = πd, where r = radius and d = diameter.

Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting, which can be used to identify the writer. The physical characteristics of handwriting can indicate the author's psychological state at the time of writing, and can be indicative of the author's personality.

A principle law of graphology states that handwriting is as unique as a fingerprint. The analysis of the dot of the i, the curves of the letter o, or the shape of the number zero is often based on the three P's – position, profile, and pressure. For example, if the dot of i is placed closely to the stem, it suggests that the author pays close attention to details.

The book was printed and bound by hand in New York City.





Special thanks to: Benjamin Critton for the guidance and support.

Time: 5 weeks (Fall 2014)